For the eighth year WACRA offers workshops specially designed to assist you in learning how to write cases and/or improve your cases. Even if you do not submit a case you are welcome to participate and gain valuable insight into the case research-writing-publishing process.
New Casewriters Workshop: A panel of experienced case researchers will discuss how to research, write and improve cases. Among the topics to be covered will be objectives, various types of case research, information sources, the writing process, and the use and development of effective teaching notes. Integral to this process will be the discussion by panel members of several presented cases and teaching notes. These cases, still in the development state, will demonstrate the case editing and improvement process. Experienced case-writers are also welcome.
The Eighth Annual Casewriters Colloquium:
Both novice and experienced case writers can benefit from the colloquium.
Case presenters, panelists from the workshop, and all other participants
are organized into roundtables for (free-form) discussion of various cases
presented at each table. Following are the cases to be discussed:
This case study describes the situation
of a particular Czech wine producer, the agricultural farm in Lednice,
which operates under MUAF Brno. It comes from the description of the Czech,
European, and world market of wine, and results in some suggestions of
the main environmental factors influencing the particular producer.
GASNALSA is a Spanish company dedicated to the business of supplying and commercialization of piped natural gas. In 1997 it received the European Prize of Managerial Excellence (reward comparable to M. Baldrige). The case is basically based on the methodology analysis of introduction to TQM System. The problems of transformation and cultural change to which this company has faced in order to confront new challenges of market orientation and creation of higher value for its clients are exposed here.
Besides, the administration programs
that have been established by the company in order to achieve the excellency
are analyzed. Especially, it is deeply described the work performed by
GASNALSA in two of the criterion agents of The European Model of Managerial
Excellence of EFQM: Personnel Management (criterion 3) and Quality and
Process System (criterion 5).
This case describes the dilemma facing
the XYZ Employment Service who provided a temporary worker, John, to a
client who subsequently wanted to employ him full time. However, John failed
the client's drug test required for permanent employment and has been refused
any future work with the client. What should XYZ do regarding using John
for other assignments?
This case describes the growth of
Spain's largest domestic grocery chain. The company is a cooperative managed
by Constan Dacosta and several committees. Management is trying to determine
the best way to continue the company's growth and success.
By the late 1990s, however, the level
of competition had increased dramatically with The Home Depot and Ace Hardware
Corporation expanding into Canada. Both were large U.S.-based companies
with enormous purchasing power relative to Tim-BR-Marts. In this highly
competitive environment there had been changes in some relationships between
suppliers and retailers with both often seeking closer, mutually beneficial
relationships. The number of Tim-BR-Marts' member dealers decreased from
186 in 1994 to 132 in 1998. However, Tim-BR-Marts management had been successful
in increasing the level of annual suppliers' rebates earned and their goal
was to maintain this record because gaining rebates for dealers was the
basic reason for the organization's existence.
This case describes the Remy Martin's
renewed emphasis on its Duty Free business to compete effectively in the
global liquor industry. In recent years, the company is increasingly facing
strong competition and changing consumer tastes and preferences. The impending
abolition by the European Union (EU) of the Duty Free Trade by June1999
poses additional challenges. A viable strategy must be identified to ensure
the long-term success of the firm.
This case is the story of Helena Olsson.
It recounts the company's economic environment and financial situation.
Then, it raises questions and issues of leadership particularly comparing
masculine with feminine styles. Helena must deal with managing change to
create her new business idea. The case leaves open for discussion what
makes a model manager today.
The case describes the events surrounding
the arrival of a new principal, Sandra Lee, at South Heights Public School,
an inner city school. Here initial effort to improve South Heights are
a miserable failure. Sandra Lee must decide if she will resign or stay
and try to transform South Heights.
Grupo Synkro, S.A. (GS) and Grupo Mexicano de Desarrollo, S.A. both Mexican companies, were owned by the Mexican Ballesteros family. Cresencio Ballesteros and his two sons, Jorge and Jose Luis, operated these two companies and a number of other wholly-owned subsidiaries. Grupo Synkno (GS) was the family's textile company. Grupo Mexicano de Desarrollo (GMD) was the family's construction company.
Grupo Synkro purchased the United
States-based Kayser-Roth hosiery company in January 1994 for $170 million
at a time when CS was heavily in debt and the purchase price could have
been used to pay down the company's debt.
Whathappened Industries, Inc., was a small business enterprise that made and sold its products in a comparatively captive market. The founder, who was the owner-president-chief executive, directly supervised production activities, and sold his products through local merchants.
As the company's products received acceptance in the marketplace, and the demand for them increased significantly, the company floated a stock issue to raise required expansion capital. Although the company was now publicly held, the president continued to run a "one man" show.
The president was an entrepreneur, not a skilled manager. As the company grew, and the need for both planning and operational information expanded, the president became increasingly out of his element as chief executive. Consequently, he made a series of ill advised decisions that impeded, and ultimately impacted negatively on, the company's operations.
This case describes the near disintegration
of a company due to unplanned growth, ineffective information systems,
and ineffective (or perhaps incompetent) decision-making. The case is divided
into a series of phases, and students are asked to analyze and evaluate
the company's actions as each of the phases takes place.
As part of the WACRA Interactive Case
Sessions - a session will be held to discuss issues pertaining to teaching
across cultures. There will be panels representing different regions of
the world: Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia, and
Latin, Central and North America. If you have had expereicne teaching ro
training in another part of the world, you may want to join. If you think
you might be or would like to teach in another part of the world, you may
want to meet others who have done so. We promise a lively presentation
A. Klein, Wheelock College, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
N. Ray, Boise State University, BOISE, IDAHO, U.S.A.
J. Zerio, Thunderbird, GLENDALE, ARIZONA, U.S.A.
G. Borrás, Thunderbird, GLENDALE,
This workshop is focused on the fundamental pre-requisites necessary for effective teaching and learning with cases. New and experienced teachers alike across all disciplines will have an opportunity to participate in a sample case method class. The objectives to the teaching with cases workshop are to:
Global health is important to the
U.S. in a global health village. Central and Eastern European countries
have initiated health care sector reforms given macroeconomic pressures.
Health sector transformation efforts are complex and difficult requiring
a management infrastructure to initiate and sustain restructuring efforts
under democratization and privatization initiatives. Global intersectorial
action through transnational cooperation and partnerships is appropriate
to address random, discontinuous changes requiring nonlinear thinking.
The BRIDGE partnership model, funded by a grant from AIHA//USAID, emphasized
entrepreneurship and sustainability of efforts through the exchange of
information and ideas between universities, faculties, community networks
and health care professionals between the U.S. and Slovak Republic.
Since the early 1990s, a number of initiatives of the Australian Federal Government have had a compounded impact on higher education in general, and for the teaching of accounting related studies in particular. The general impacts have been caused by the mergers of educational institutions following the Dawkin's Green Paper and the Quality Audits following the Higher Education Council Report. The specific impacts have been due to the aftermath of the Matthew's Committee Report on the quality of Accounting Departments, and the move towards entrepreneurship and internationalisation of higher education due to various funding constraints imposed on the university sector.
Accounting departments that were ranked at diverse ends of the quality spectrum in the Matthew's report suddenly found themselves "merged" into one university due to the Dawkin's recommendations. These departments also found that accountancy studies was one of the more popular discipline areas in many of the targeted overseas markets. This internationally focused entrepreneurial thrust was, however, seen by many as being not only at the expense of the more traditional research orientation of university departments, but also as reducing the quality of the local-product as resources were dissipated and standards lowered in search of the almighty fee-paying overseas student.
This paper is an in-depth case study
of a university department that was subject to all of the above pressures
in the 1990-1996 period. It reports on the objectives, strategies and structures
adopted by the department in such an environment, its attempt to manage
quality of the programs within the department, and the performance outcomes
achieved during the period. The case provides many useful lessons for Universities,
and their Faculties and Departments, which wish to operate in a globalized
This case describes and discusses
the current transition from one generation to antoher in a growing southern
Spanish middle-size family business. It is based on in-company research
and several documents issued by the CEO to the Board of Directors which
is composed of five brothers and sisters whose equity holdings are equal.
Management professionalization, Strategic Change, Business Diversification,
and Family Business Relationships are the main topics in the case. An organizational
analysis is derived from a strategy plan, which will be described formerly.
This case can be useful as a practical reflection on difficulties faced
by the family business in generational transition, even if both internal
and environmental conditions are good.
This paper investigates the impact
of technology on education and the concomitant training needs of professors
as we move into the twenty-first century. Faculty perceptions are measured
for four important areas (methods and techniques, technology, environmental
factors, and people and training factors). Additionally, the role of professors
and the promotion and tenure system are studied.
This paper illustrates how the case
method was used as both a teaching and research tool in an effort to understand
why certain industries are plagued with third-party complaints. Graduate
management students, enrolled in two different marketing course at a private
mid-western university, engaged in a case research and writing project.
The opportunity to participate in this exercise arose out of an existing
educational and research partnership between an academic business ethics
center and a major metropolitan Better Business Bureau (BBB). The case
studies were remarkably successful in capturing and tracing the complicated
development and communication that surrounds the serious complaints filed
with the BBB.
This presentation will provide insights
about the process and challenges of students developing and analyzing case
studies rom Community Service Learning during a teacher preparation program
at one University in California, U.S.A. The presenter will provide a framework,
descriptions, and recommendations that can be utilized in various fields
of study in institutions of higher education. Participants will receive
written examples of questions and guidelines fro developing and evaluating
This paper describes case method and
action research activities following seven national and international workshops
on creative teaching. The first phase of the study was conducted at the
first international conference of ACT-WACRA, Switzerland, 1998. All seven
presentations connected participant responses to characteristics described
in The Courage to Teach, [Palmer, 1997], including attendees writing
their philosophy of teaching/learning, as outlined by Apps . Analysis
of the information indicates a missing link for implementation. A program
planning model will be offered to demonstrate how to translate the enthusiasm
generated in workshops to utilization in participants' home settings.
Case study of innovative courses is
useful for teachers-in-training to undertake in order to learn both course
design and classroom research. One example of a case study that fulfilled
such purposes is discussed in detail--a case study of a university course
revised and implemented by graduate students. Their course enabled ESL
composition students to write regular, college-level compositions rather
than more typically assigned simpler, shorter compositions. New elements
of the course included cooperative learning, portfolio grading, thematic
assignment sequencing, and collaborative writing. Adoption of the major
course revisions is recommended, with caveats given about the collaborative
We describe how our collaborative
digital technology project assignment improves teaching and learning. Our
model, funded in part by a Federal Improvement of Post-Secondary Education
grant, pairs up a "content" class with a "technology" class, in a simulation
of the contractor/client relationship. The "client" class creates information
to be presented, and the "contractor" class renders as interactive multimedia
[CD-ROM or website.) The "content" teacher gest help from the "tech" teacher
in integrating use of the Internet, electronic presentations, e-mail, electronic
forums and bulletin boards into their classroom routine. The students learn
in context and by doing, rather than by rote.
The prevalent development and application
of teaching cases to the business discipline has clouded or somehow limited
the use in other areas. This focus further questions the transferability
of skills and learnings associated with the case discussion method to other
disciplines. This paper presents the results of a survey of case authors
and users, highlights efforts at case development and applications in non-business
disciplines, discusses the challenges encountered and uses the conclusions
to make the case for case development and discussion method for all disciplines
and levels of education.
This paper reports on innovations
in case teaching in the field of management, and specifically on the development
of an entrepreneurial case method. The challenge faced was how to teach
management in a non-case environment, where few teaching resources were
available (money as well as cases in a native language). Live cases were
chosen and later "entrepreneurial creative cases" as the method of case
teaching. With creative cases, participants develop an entrepreneurial
idea and then create an enterprise to develop and market the idea. They
consider enterprise policy and planning, and the outcome must be a feasible
entrepreneurial project. A specific innovation was added recently to support
the entrepreneurial idea, namely that students make a physical prototype
of the product (using Lego blocks, plasticine, etc.) that will be produced
and sold, and prepare a poster to present it to the market.
In the l950's the idea of temperament type was revived. Isabel Briggs Myers, with her mother Kathryn Briggs, after reviewing Carl Jung's book on Psychological Type and observing the behavior of family and friends devised the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI identified sixteen different patterns of behavior and has been widely used throughout the world. The MBTI renewed Jung's ideas about temperament type and how temperament influences behavior in the workplace and at home. Jung believed that individuals were born with their basic temperament type in place [Keirsey and Bates, l984]. Kathryn Briggs included her research findings on the Myers-Briggs in a book entitled Gifts Differing, emphasizing the perspective that we are all born with different preferences for our sources of energy (introversion vs extroversion), ways of accessing information (sensation vs intuition), ways of making decisions (feeling vs thinking) and ways of perceiving the world (judging vs perceiving). [Kerisey and Bates, l984]. Important points to emphasize when discussing temperament include all behaviors (preferences) discussed are found on a wide continuum and all temperament types bring gifts - no one temperament type is better
This simulation deals with differences
in temperament type and how they impact managers who are facilitating a
change process. The managers are working in a for-profit organization but
could be in any kind of organization. The typology used is based on the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The change process has to do with redesigning
a bank to accommodate new technology.
Interactive multimedia simulations
provide an opportunity to use technology to enhance management education.
Although the simulations are primarily used to teach business strategy
to individuals, they can also be used to provide an interactive learning
experience for student teams. The paper develops team learning theory and
integrates it into the learning stages for multimedia simulations. The
issues of using multimedia simulations in an academic setting with student
teams are also discussed and guidelines are given to insure a successful
This paper focuses on the utilization
of reflective teaching and thinking by twenty-two teachers as a tool to
engage teachers in the process of observing, examining, analyzing, and
evaluating their philosophy of teaching and learning and their effectiveness
as teachers. Research has indicated that reflection encourages teachers
to critically assess, "What am I doing? Why am I doing it? Does it result
in increased student learning and achievement? More important, does it
help me become a more knowledgeable and effective teacher?"
During the spring semester of 1997,
the two authors team-taught "Marketing on the Internet" at the University
Studies Abroad Consortium (USAC) site in Heredia, Costa Rica. The course
made use of both professors' area of expertise - computer information systems
and marketing. While the course syllabus from that semester is still available
for perusal on the Web (http://minch.idbsu.edu/marknet/), the purpose of
this paper is to describe that class and to comment on the advantages and
disadvantages of not only teaching a course over the Internet, but one
taught relying on the technology resources of a developing country and
one in which students from two different nationalities are participating.
While marketing on the Internet courses are often taught at many universities,
to the authors' knowledge, this paper describes the first time such a course
purposefully involved locations in more than one country.
This study updates a 1991 WACRA paper
addressing the availability of female role models in international casebooks.
The analysis found 15.2% of 750 international business case studies showing
women in significant roles versus 2.3% of 388 cases reviewed before. Overall,
the results generally suggest that case writers in current international
text- and casebooks portray women in roles reflective of comparable managerial,
functional, and professional roles in the corporate world. Case and book
authors are encouraged to scrutinize the material they incorporate in revised
and new cases and text- and casebooks to assure the presence of appropriate
role models for women.
The pedagogic process followed by both methods places emphasis on the four stages of the individual learning process described by Kolb in 1984. Kolb is one of the authors who has broken down the barrier between conscious and unconscious learning, building a bridge between them, and integrating both of them in a unique process. The learning process can be understood as a integrated balance between experience and theory.
Students learn through action. However,
to be able to learn from their (or other's ) actions, they must be able
to reflect about their (or other's) experience and its results. Subsequently,
they need to move to the abstract checking the results of their experience
with the theories, knowledge and assumptions (the way tehy think) that
made them (or other's) take that decision. So we can distinguish in a conceptual
way four different phases in the learning process: Think, Decide, Act,
Until this last year, National-Louis University had virtually no web presence. Yes, they had some simple postings, and yes, our Continuing Education Department was beginning to do some exciting things. Fundamentally, however, there was little "there" there. In the past year, NLU, and particularly the College of Management & Business have made great strides. This has been in addition to the on-going excitement in our Continuing Education Department.
This presentation will consist of
4 parts a; (1) Dr. Alex Koohang will describe how he and his colleagues
spearheaded NLU's, CMB's and Continuing Ed's hyperspeed journey onto the
web; (2) Dr. Alex Koohang will also describe NLU's Continuing Jed's development,
"What makes for a successful online course/program?" (3) Ellen McMahon
will describe the development of our undergraduate degree completion program,
Bachelors of Science in Management [BSM], and its translation to an on-line
offering; (4a) Dr. Edward Weiss will describe the development of our web-supported
MBA program and its transition to an on-line offering; (4B) Dr. Edward
Weiss and Dr. Paula Jordon will describe the development of 2 individual
MBA courses, Managerial Economics and Macroeconomics, for both web-supported
offering and an on-line offering.
This paper presents a number of case study lessons learned by successful and unsuccessful small businesses during the 1996 Summer Olympic games in Atlanta, Georgia; and constructs a descriptive model from which implications and recommendations are drawn for small businesses interested in the 2000 Summer Olympic games in Sydney, Australia.
There were two major reasons for undertaking Olympic businesses case studies. The first purpose is to develop a theoretical framework of critical factors to businesses specifically catering to the significant increase in perceived demand for goods and services that arise when staging an Olympics.
The second major purpose of undertaking Olympic businesses case study is to apply the lessons learned from the descriptive model in constructing a normative model for businesses gearing up for a future Olympiad.
Businesses expecting to make a quick fortune out of the Sydney Olympics are likely to be disappointed, as the experiences of entrepreneurs in Atlanta indicate that it would not be an easy task. The study found that the businesses most likely to be successful are ones that are already established with surplus funds to deploy into new ventures in which they can afford to take risks.
The Olympics in Australia is less
than two years away, and hopefully, they will learn and benefit from the
painful lessons in Atlanta. The Case study lessons presented in this paper
provides specific normative lessons on how businesses can make or lose
money during special demand conditions such as during an Olympics period.
This paper traces the experiences of developing electronic, interactive, multimedia, case studies for use on part-time MBA and Distance Learning MBA Marketing and Business Policy courses. It explores some of the pitfalls encountered and highlights and reviews student and industrial reactions to its development and usage. In addition, it examines the interface between delivery platform and content and how the integration of these relate to the need to develop both an informative and entertaining user experience.
The empirical base rests on the trial
runs of the student evaluation CD Rom with postgraduate MBA students. Here
a questionnaire was utilized and then followed up with personal interview.
This work is still on-going.
Among non-governmental organizations
(NGO) the institutions of Social Reinsertion, and more concretely, institutions
of initiatives for the social and labor insertion of the disadvantaged,
in our opinion play a very important role in the new economic-social order.
These organizations have a clear mission, even if most times they cannot
achieve their goals. There are multi-factorial reasons, as much economical,
social, anthropological ones as of management. Such a complex reality requires
the crossing of many disciplinary approaches, which is why we present a
case to this regard as well as the consequences deriving from it in the
scope of our research.
Challenges in the preparation of teachers and other educators, have included attempts to have students seek out and make meaning of experiences that come from outside of the boundaries of their life experiences. The need for this understanding and making of meaning has been well documented in the attempt to have neophytes come to deeper levels of contact and potential work with those different culturally from themselves [Chavkin, Families and Schools in a Pluralistic Society, 1993; Banks, Nultiethnic Education, 1994; Lynch, Multicultural Education, 1986; and Nieto, Affirming Diversity 1992/1996]. his report, an analysis of practice, is a descriptive explanation of the use of case study approaches to prepare students by using the case study approach to provide contact with urban and culturally plural educational settings. The report describes these efforts and reflects upon the four kinds of implementation: 1) investigation of the urban contexts of North America 2) utilizing the Internet as a vicarious experiential device for providing contextual inquiry 3) utilizing simulations for concretizing learning 4) utilizing case study to move students out of their comfort zones. The data for this report has been collected for more than five years, portions of it have been reported out previously in papers on teacher education and the preparation of prospective teachers to work with students who are culturally different from themselves [Henry, Developing Educators Who Are Effective in Diverse Communities, 1996; Henry, Graduate Education Affecting Communities of Color, 1997]. The data has been collected on two sites: 1) at a Western US public university in a graduate teacher education program and in undergraduate introduction to education (foundation) coursed, and 2) in a US Mid Wester Region private selective admissions liberal arts college. In each instance of using case studies, students have had little contact with urban life or culturally plural educational settings.
Unlike case study utilization in business and law, most researchers, like Merseth [Case, Case Methods and the Professional Development of Educators, 1996], Kleinfled [Learning to Think Like a Teacher: The Study of Case Studies, 1992], Richert [Using Teacher Cases for Reflection and Enhanced Understanding, 1991] and Wasserman [Using Cases to Study Teaching, 1994] appear to believe that case study is new to education and blossoming due to an interest in the development of teacher knowledge and cognition and as an acknowledgment of the complexities of teaching. A review of the literature from the ERIC Clearinghouse and other sources might suggest, however that case study has long been used but most often embedded in other genres of approach. Like the typology of Merseth , the cases are described in terms of their purposes: 1) cases as exemplars, 2) cases as opportunities to practice analysis, the assimilation of differing perspectives and contemplation of action and 3) cases as stimulants to personal reflection.
The major finding of this report is
that use of case studies can improve the education of teachers by providing
opportunities for their understanding and developing skills in working
with persons whose backgrounds are different from their own.
The Idaho FLES model shows how a university and school district combine efforts to create a Spanish enrichment program designed to stimulate academic interest in elementary-age children and to provide pre-service teachers with additional foreign language teaching experience. Rather than focusing on textbook-based instruction, this model offers content-based curriculum intended to engage students in hands-on experiences through the NASA program "GLOBE".
The GLOBE program lends itself as
a vehicle for learning Foreign Language, Mathematics, Technology, Social
Studies and Culture, providing the perfect foundation for interdisciplinary
study. The K-12 GLOBE materials allow students to learn a second language
in a content-based manner and the program effectively incorporates all
5 goal areas of the National Standards in Foreign Language Project (1996).
Students reinforce and further their knowledge of math, science, social
studies and technology through the foreign language as they measure, calculate,
report and enter data on the Internet. Students also have a means to engage
in conversational exchanges with students in other countries who are conducting
the same scientific protocols in their classrooms through organized GLOBE
Web Chats as well as utilizing GLOBE-Mail, an e-mail system connected to
all GLOBE schools.
TEACHERS CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER
In this paper we describe an evaluation
study integrated in a teacher in-service training course on modeling and
simulation that had been held last year at the University of Coimbra. The
main objective of the study was to determine whether teachers have or have
not the ease and the time for developing or adapting their own models and
simulations for use with their students in learning contexts given access
to the proper tools. Other objectives were to access the adequacy of the
tools used and whether they have acquired during the course the required
skills and knowledge to do so.
This paper reports on a project dealing
with the very promising, but sometimes cumbersome task of introducing virtual
cases at the Department of Political Science. A unique opportunity was
presented to the Department to link the internal educational development
of the case method with the multinational ELVIL project. Bridging the gap
between these two projects has meant access to resources and know how,
but also to restrictions. A series of virtual cases has been produced as
a result of this cooperation. The next phase was to design a strategy for
the development of virtual cases. One such pilot test is presented in this
paper and in the appendix the first example of the case design - "Bruce
Babbit and the oil in Alaska" - is demonstrated.
Internet technology has become a vital
tool of the teaching profession. To prepare today's students for tomorrow's
needs, it is extremely important that students learn to deal with new technology.
Exposure to this new technology will also provide students with an opportunity
to adapt to changing circumstances. Numerous tools have been implemented
at Purdue University School of Technology at Columbus to enhance traditional
as well as distance learning. Use of these technologies in the face-to-face
teaching and learning environment has raised student interest in the subject
matter and in technology in general. It has also increased student interaction,
information retention, and has also helped with student retention. This
paper addresses the use of email and discussion forums for the class and
sub-groups of class members. It will also discuss chat rooms for a class,
submission of homework assignments over the Internet, and Internet publication
of class schedules, assignments, syllabi, and class announcements. By implementing
Internet technology as a teaching enhancement tool, both teaching and learning
can be made very effective, easy, and even entertaining.
This is a report of a study of applied research in education. An Experiential Learning Process(ELP) is an active teaching strategy. The process is designed to engage the learner in the discovery process and to reflect on the meaning(s) discovered in the process. It works well for adult learners who tend to learn from experience to theory. The process includes four components which are followed in a circular mode. The process begins with the experience and moves through generalizing, synergy and application.
This process was utilized as the model for analysis of case studies the graduate program courses in adult education. Participants felt they had a better understanding of the issues in the cases when they used the ELP and they found that the opportunity to reflect provide additional insights into the different issues.
The use of ELP as a tool for case
analysis does require the instructor to list discovery questions and not
answers in the teaching notes.
The psychology of learning and the
use of the computer to provide a practical solution to promote learning
were studied. The overview of the psychology of learning included the learning
theories and conditions of learning, individual and cooperative learning,
learning styles, and affective factors. Computer assisted learning as a
practical solution to cater to needs was discussed in relation to learner,
educator, and activity type program. Results indicated that computer use
assisted students to perform significantly better than students without
computer assistance. It was concluded that the computer integrated the
learning theories and conditions and provided a guaranteed learning environment.
Auditors gather evidence to formulate
their judgment on financial statements and in assessing the risk factors
concerning the company under audit. This paper examines the role played
by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the Securities
and Exchange Commission in developing auditing standards concerning audit
evidence. A classroom approach to using significant court and SEC cases
relating to audit evidence is described and the cases discussed.
The strategic opportunities for university
and industry partnering are enormous. Both gain from joint efforts in education
and from collaboration in research and field projects of mutual interest.
In this study, we took the strategic management model approach to a case
study in university-industry interactions. An interdisciplinary team of
students and faculty from business and enginerring in the university and
managers from industry, produced a strategic advantage for both. This approach,
with its emphasis on strategic analysis and competitive success in a dynamic
world, exceeded the results obtained from the traditional relationship
based on university conducted feasibility studies for industry.
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This case presents a Vietnamese student
research project for an international appliance manufacturer that requests
a demand analysis to determine the feasibility of building a factory in
that nation. Students are challenged with how to design a valid sampling
plan to provide a demand estimate. Cultural and analytical obstacles and
their implications for the research planning process are discussed. Specific
attention is given to defining the research population, constructing a
sample frame, and drawing the sample.
When dealing with the case method, management professors have the feeling that the method, whose origins can be traced t the American educational experience, is more or less universal. This is due to the fact that in the sixties and seventies the American model was considered fully transferable when dealing with an occidental view of business education. The more the method is used, the more obvious it becomes clear that specific aspects in methodology must be dealt with if the method is to continue to be successful.
When a European or an American Faculty
goes to teach business disciplines in African, Asian, or Latin American
environments, he may encounter several difficulties tied up to the learning
process. This paper will explore some of those obstacles.
An obligation of academic scholars
is to disseminate knowledge through publication. Professional educators
have the responsibility of providing seminal information and developing
innovative, interdisciplinary models of inservice and preservice training
for business leaders, educators, social service professionals, health professionals,
public servants, and others. Yet, getting a manuscript published is difficult,
at times seemingly impossible for new investigators, and ascertaining the
implicit guidelines are as important as the explicit editorial conventions.
The intent of this exploratory case study was to investigate publishing
criteria as well as the underlying mission and goals of editors, evaluate
their responses to survey questions, and inform colleagues of editorial
practice. Surveying editors consisted of an informal exploration of their
perceived purpose; explicit editorial policies regarding language mechanics,
readability, references, and style; implicit guidelines on the same components;
as well as the use of electronic correspondence and submission. Potential
patterns that arise consistently across all publications were identified.
Where differences emerged, it was noted as a possible trend. The direction
of future research includes: sample a larger portion of business, psychology,
and educational journals to determine if the observed pattern and trends
are universal, review original data, and strengthen initial findings with
current information to identify the essential editorial guidelines for
successful publication. It is imperative that the techniques for effective
practice be heard by the necessary audiences in a timely fashion for our
professional mission to be accomplished.
Globalization has increased the need
for managers (and future managers) to better understand the various cultural
and religious values that influence ethical decisions internationally.
This paper examines the core ethical values of the major religions and
how students can develop small cases that apply these religious values
to common problems in global corporations.
The participants of the roundtable will examine some or all of the following areas: the different delivery types of distance education; the advantages and disadvantages of distance education; the training needed to delivery a "quality" distance education degree/non-degree program; faculty training for distance education; the distance education curriculum requirements; the universities that are currently using distance education; the universities that want to offer distance education in the future; and the future trends in distance education in higher education.
As society moves into the 21st century, distance education will become more commonplace in higher education. Technology is a major contributor to the dramatic transformation of distance learning. Although the use of technology for distance learning is not new - radio and television have been used effectively for more than forty years - satellites and the internet are transforming the world into a borderless educational arena.
In higher education, instructors are
being asked to upgrade their skill base to include training in distance
education delivery technologies. However, there are a growing number of
institutions that want to participate in distance education, but cannot
afford the multi-media technology and training. Similarly, there are instructors
that will not embrace the new technologies and will continue willingly
to instruct in the traditional mode, "chalk and talk." Additionally, there
is a growing resistance among some faculty to distance education for a
variety of reasons. Although these reasons may be valid, this paper will
only focus on those instructors that are currently teaching a course in
a distance education program and the methodology that they employ.
Everyone loves to boast about an online
collaborative artwork, no matter how thin the initial premise or small
the innovation. And, as in private industry, rarely does a fine arts software
project concluded with an analytical postmortem of a project of any kind.
The project "Friscawai'i", involving students of Violet Murakami and Mike
Mosher <email@example.com>, merits study because, well, it sort of sputtered
to its incompletion.
Research into the benefits of Distance
Education have produced some positive and negative results. More and more
research is being done on pedagogical theory and outcome assessment (learning
variables). This research attempts to study the difference distance education
venue makes in delivering course materials. Learning outcomes are used
as the measure of effectiveness. The traditional measure of scores (grades)
is included, along with a self-rated skill level. The methodology to measure
these outcomes was two assessment forms which were administered pre-course
and post-course to measure the impact of the class on students' knowledge
and skills. Results show there is no significant difference in learning
Technologies such as the Internet,
especially the World Wide Web (WWW), have provided ways for institutions
and faculty to deliver courses by unconventional methods. Course materials
are delivered to students by videotape, compressed video (video conferencing),
and the Internet / Web. Many students, and many people in the public at
large, find this method attractive and beneficial. Faculty, however, have
had mixed opinions about the use of Distance Education. This research provides
an empirical investigation of faculty attitudes towards Distance Education.
The results reveal faculty's opinions are evenly divided over issues such
as pedagogical benefits and potential loss of instructors' jobs.
This workshop is dedicated to writing field-based, decision-oriented cases for use in classroom discussions and is of interest to new and experienced case writers using a process that is applicable across all disciplines. The objectives of the writing cases session are to:
Mega-learning can be reinforced in
many ways. One novel way is by continual repetition through audio-visual
media, where information is presented in a risk-/stress-free environment--auto-suggestion,
suggestology, sophrology, biofeedback, etc. Another approach is to have
abstract ideas in the sciences translated into physical learning aids,
where the kernel of the analogy can be retained for comprehending and reinforcing
differing situations, and for cross-disciplinary usage.
The author taught three 300-level
courses on contemporary topics which are inherently dynamic, multi-disciplinary,
and international in scope: Contemporary Economic Development in Russia
and Eastern Europe, International Information Systems, and Managing the
Year 2000 Millennium Bug. To maximize interactive and experiential learning,
student teams developed board games and held tournaments in each course.
Examples of data sets and game scenarios are included, and the best of
the board games will be available for play and evaluation. Game theory
and its relationship to board games will be analyzed. Finally, plans to
enhance this experiment will be presented.
Developing countries of the world are characterized, inter alia, by poor productivity, high unemployment, high birth rates, low gross domestic products (GDP) per capita, an unhealthy brain drain and poor educational systems.
In order to survive and prosper, developing countries of the world need a dramatic increase in wealth creation. They need investment in science and technology in order to create more jobs. They need scientists and technologies who are well-qualified and capable of converting their entrepreneurial ideas into wealth creation. They need international leaders/managers with the necessary flair and skills to compete in the global village. To become a player in the global scene and to be successful internationally is the only way to survive.
To obtain this, developing countries need researchers who can, through research, give them a competitive edge in science and technology. They need researchers who are able to develop educational systems that can compete with the rest of the world. Research should focus on global competence and on development and empowerment of researchers.
In this paper, the Republic of South
Africa was used as a main reference of the developing countries.
Globalization has increased the need
for managers (and future managers) to predict the potential for country
corruption. Case writers and instructors need an understanding of why corruption
develops more in some countries than in others so they can guide their
students' understanding of ethical dilemma and establish appropriate controls.
This paper examines the relationship between Hofstede's cultural dimensions
and how country corruption is perceived. Power distance, individualism,
uncertainty avoidance and masculinity were all found to be significantly
associated with perceived country corruption. They were also found to explain
a significant portion of the variance in perceived corruption.
A value-added approach for assessing
undergraduate degree programs is presented. Monetary returns to skills
and attributes of alumni from the University of Georgia's College of Agricultural
and Environmental Sciences are measured. Interpersonal skills were found
to provide the greatest value-added benefits for career advancement. Benefits
were higher for non-business-related majors in the College. Contributions
of interpersonal skills to career advancement remained constant during
the study period while contributions of technical skills declined. Recommendations
for revising curricula are presented.
The case method can play an important
role in solving problems and in teaching problem solving and design in
computer engineering courses. In this paper, a spreadsheet is used for
the performance analysis of cache memory design in multiprocessor computer
architectures. The topic of cache memory is an essential one in several
computer engineering courses given at the junior and senior undergraduate
level, as well as graduate level of electrical and computer engineering
programs. In this paper, spreadsheet software is used to carry out performance
evaluation studies on different cache memory design scenarios. Its low
cost, flexibility and simplicity characterize the simulation. The suitability
of this tool for educational purposes and its use in computer architecture
courses are also addressed.
This paper summarizes an effort to
bring technology into the teacher education classroom in an innovative
way. Partnerships were formed between professors and graduate students.
These partnerships worked together to tailor technology programs either
for classroom presentation purposes or for supplemental computer work for
designated courses. Two such programs are described.
The University of North Florida (UNF)
in Jacksonville, Florida is the administrator of a collaborative effort
to extend delivery of comprehensive services to at-risk students and their
families. Project EFECT involves a UNF partnership with the Duval County
Public Schools (DCPS), and three other universities around the state of
Florida, i.e., Jacksonville University College of Health, Florida State
university (FSU) Social Work Program, and the University of Central Florida.
Project EFECT provides an alternative model for training student service
interns from UNF, JU and FSU for the purpose of helping them acquire skills
necessary to function in a collaborative 21st century school.
The focus is to address the multiple and interrelated etiologies of students'
problems through a case management approach. Student service interns from
school counseling, nursing, and social work services deliver services in
a holistic, collaborative and interdisciplinary manner. The inters in collaboration
with the school principal, school counselor, teachers, and district level
student service personnel work to enhance the academic success of at-risk
students by providing individual or group interventions, assessment, parent
education seminars, and teacher consultation.
The three objectives we will address in this paper are: (1) to analyze why the student-centered teaching is the new wave for the 21st century, (2) to derive insights from philosophers of education, and (3) to generate strategies to foster student-centered teaching.
I teach foundations of education courses.
On the first day of class, I ask students to share with the class their
memories of the best and worst teachers. I tried to incorporate students'
response to what some famous students said about their famous teachers.
In this context, I develop some strategies of student-centered teaching.
This proposal describes the use of
the case method to assess the core competencies in the business school
curriculum of a large comprehensive university. Following the advice of
assessment experts, the particular case that is developed for this purpose
is designed to be integrated into the course requirements, is brief, yet
powerful enough to measure all ten competencies (involving individual competencies
such as critical thinking skills and written communication skills and group
competencies such as leadership and teamwork) while requiring only one
contact hour with students.
The case method is recognized by academia as an effective teaching tool. While the Harvard Business School first popularized its use, the case method originates from everyday business practices. This study examines the use of the case method, not traditional academic circles, but in those universities operated by corporations.
The corporate university is more than
just a training program for company employees. Its programs range from
company orientation to complete MBA degrees. Thus the use of the case method
will be as varied as the programs offered. This study approaches a variety
of corporate universities to determine how the case method is being employed,
to discover trends in case methodology, and their effectiveness in course
of daily business.
Graduate students who co-taught a
freshman seminar course were asked to research and write a case study about
a first-year student in the class. The case study was to describe a problem
the student had faced or a decision the student had made early in his or
her first semester in college. The purpose of this activity was twofold,
first it allowed the graduate student co-teachers to get to know at least
one of their students very well and, second, it provided a means of collecting
case studies specifically about first-year students as they adjusted to
the college campus. Of the case studies collected, most dealt with problems
new students encountered with relationships; relationships with family
and friends left behind, and relationships with new friends, roommates
and faculty on campus. A example of a case study developed through this
process is presented along with its instructor note.
The Urban Wilderness Learning Project
is sponsored by the Community of Learners Charter School in Durango, Colorado,
and continues to provide amazing academic and life-changing adventures
for all teachers and learners who choose to be involved. It inspires its
young students to rethink their roles in their community; they are asked
and trained to be leaders, thinkers, and creators - and they are responding
proactively. This work discusses the Learning Project as well as analyzes
the topic of schools as political organizations, and seek to underscore,
through illustration, the importance of the interdisciplinary and immersion-based
educational model where diversity and difference are honored.
This workshop is focused on helping students to learn faster and better using cases. The objectives of the learning with cases workshop are to:
This symposium will be based on a set of three cases being written on the African Developmelnt Bank. The cases describe the strategic situation of the Bank:
This special session will consist
of a panel of instructors who will share examples of interactive, problem
oriented learning experiences that utilize web based technology to enable
multi-campus cooperation between students. Presenters will discuss development
and implementation issues. The examples will be relevant to an international
and multi-disciplinary audience of educators. Student projects to be discussed
involve close collaboration between U.S. Universities and counterparts
in the Philippines and Japan. The projects involve students in the areas
of International Marketing, Accounting, Teacher Educations, and Engineering.
The participants all have experience in international education.
Only one person in six claims to be relatively free from stress, with 83% of workers reporting to experience excessive amounts of stress as a result of their jobs. There appears to be a link between stress and the high rates of absenteeism and loss of production. Stress related disability claims are increasing each year and are extremely costly to business and industry.
There are two primary objectives of this workshop. The first is to clarify and understand personality types utilizing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The second is to explore your thoughts and behaviors which influence the stress response. Workshop participants will be able to identify what triggers stress based on personality types and will assess type specific tools and techniques for managing stress more effectively. This workshop can be used in training sessions or in the classroom in academic disciplines such as Psychology, Management, Organizational Behavior or Behavioral Sciences.
Through an awareness of personality types (both yours and others) new insights can be gained. The following questions will be explored:
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Elia Chepaitis, Fairfield University, FAIRFIELD, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
Ronald Patten, DePaul University, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
M. A. Chamme, University of Botswana, BOTSWANA, AFRICA
Diego Hidalgo, Center for International
Affairs, Harvard University, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
This workshop is focused on managing
the case classroom discussion process. An opportunity is provided for both
new and experienced teachers and across all disciplines to discuss a variety
of situations which may occur in discussion based learning using cases.
The purpose of this case was to show MBA students that you can major in accounting and still find yourself involved in managerial positions. To that effect, the authors interviewed Sylvie Voghel. By training Ms. Voghel is a Certified General Accountant but thanks to her technical skills and her ability to communicate, she has been able to climb up Hydro-Québec's corporate ladder.
The case describes several of Ms.
Voghel's important moments in her life. Each period is connected to the
next by a common thread, which is her education in accounting. But as years
pass by Ms. Voghel has been able to build upon her skills and past experiences
are always a source of knowledge for present actions.
This case deals with the process of borrowing working capital to finance an export order. Readers of the case are apprized of key terms through a glossary. The credit memorandum is a featured exhibit and serves as a source for developing answers to certain of the questions posed. Readers are asked to determine the credit worthiness of the company. A major problem in the case centers on the use of a Letter of Credit to collateralize the loan.
A major concern throughout the case
is the high payment risk associated with export transactions. A problem
develops in the use of a Letter of Credit to reduce the payment risk and
to collateralize the loan. The case demonstrates a pragmatic approach to
solving this problem and ensuring the success of the transaction.
Changing complex organization systems has suffered from some basic conceptual flaws, all related to the poor understanding of complexity and its effects. Most of the literature in the strategic management of change has thus been dominated either by broad oversimplified cycle-based theories such as punctuated change [Greiner, 1972; Kuhn, 1970; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985], or by jockingly simplistic and normative prescriptions [Miller, Greenwood and Hinings, 1997].
In this paper, we use a long term
study of a large utility firm in Quebec to highlight how change can be
problematic when any of the three sets of factors is neglected. In the
first part, we describe the first major change of the firm position in
the 1980s, to show how the neglect of organizational factors and of people
in community, has led a reasonably good formulation of a possible repositioning
to a disastrous failure, and to a durable decline of the firm's performance.
In the second part, we describe the organizational response of the firm
to such a decline, with a relative neglect of both position and community,
with a less than convincing result. In the third part, we propose a discussion
of the utility firm's ordeal, with a special emphasis on how complexity
changes the problem of managing change. The conclusion suggests the need
for a new model of managing change in complex situations.
Addressing cross-cultural research, teaching and learning in higher education has critical implications for the inclusion of multiple perspectives within institutions of higher education [Rodriguez, 1995; Bensimon & Tierney, 1992-93]. The challenge to infuse the theoretical and practical issues takes on urgency considering demograpic trends within continental U.S. and the multicultural and international composition of the higher education faculty and student body.
The theoretical framework for this
paper is based on a comprehensive review of the literature on constructivist,
critically reflective, and culturally response teaching. Within this paper,
the researchers applied a multicultural framework for analyzing and assessing
creative, interactive teaching in higher education. The paper also advances
the knowledge base by identifying and documenting specific strategies faculty
can utilize in creative, interactive teaching and learning in a cross-cultural,
interdisciplinary curriculum. The strategies introduced are aimed at creating
a learning environment that allows for the inclusion of multiple perspectives
and reinforces democratic principles, sound pedagogy, and critical thinking.
Fortex Group Ltd, operated in New
Zealand between 1985 and 1994 as a processor of meat products and as a
marketer of these products both within New Zealand and internationally.
In March, 1994 the company was placed in receivership and was subsequently
liquidated. Just four years earlier, Fortex won an award as New Zealand
company of the year and its chief executive, Graeme Thompson, was honored
for management excellence and for services to the meat industry. This case
considers the forces which transformed an organization regarded as a market
leader and as a model which other organizations were encouraged to emulate,
into an abject failure.
The president of the rotary Club,
an entrepreneur, and a professor of Business Administration, shared the
same concern. They wanted to disseminate an entrepreneurship spirit among
young people; therefore they conceived and offered a number of seminars
that were held in the city of Cáceres in 1996 and 1997. The participation
rate was so successful that it justified the writing of a master case and
the making of a video. Using ten real cases of entrepreneurs who started
their businesses with zero capital, participants were immersed in the master
case to make them think like entrepreneurs - that is live the vital experience
of building new businesses.
An education that is multicultural
empowers and prepares students for a democratic society. This research
concentrated on how student competence, defined as (1) positive ethnic
identity development, (2) accelerated achievement and social adjustment,
and (3) self-empowerment, unfolded when instruction and context were modified
as explained in the program description.
Case studies are used by the Knowledge Management Society (KMS) as a tool in promoting the dissemination of Knowledge management to other agents.
To begin with, case studies are used
in teaching. Here the relationship between university and firm facilitates
the externalization of tacit Knowledge. What is new is that these case
studies relate to Basque firms, are mainly SMEs. This is an important point,
since the managerial practice in question is described in its proper context.
Moreover, the purpose of these case studies, from the point of view of
the Knowledge Management Society, is to promote new Knowledge on the basis
of the socialization, internalization, and combination of knowledge through
such agents as consultancies, universities, and management-related institutions
and other firms.
An educational institution with high school and higher level education was interested in developing a new educational model which could foster in the students the development of skills needed for constructing meaningful knowledge. The project was oriented initally to attend high school students.
The new educational model was developed based mainly on constructivist principles. The initial proposal was to foster independent knowledge in the students. The need of teaching them learning strategies was identified, so in the initial courses there were two types of sessions in the classrooms. One kind was oriented to teach learning strategies linked to the subject matters they were studying. The other kind, called Tutorial Seminars, had the purposse to develop meaningful learning and critical thinking by students' participation in several kinds of activities like simulations, problem solving, games and others. In such a model, the role of the teacher is one of a learning facilitator and mediator. So all the activities in the classroom are student centered and the role of the student becomes a more active one.
The first generation of teachers who
participated in this program finished their studies in december 1998. As
a result of the evaluation of this part of the program it was found that
most of the teachers had accepted the new model and although some of them
weren't for the moment teaching in highschool where the new model is already
working, and they are teaching in the graduate level, they are already
introducing changes in their teaching and they are already developing their
own teaching strategies (games, simulations, cases, problems, etc.). For
the moment we can conclude that the program has been succesful reaching
the purposes stated.
The case study Historian: Building
a New Nation in 1789 contains the proprietary computer database CONGRESS.
The database provides interactive access to demographic and voting data
on the 95 men who attended the 1st United States Congress held in New York
City, 1789-1791. The 1st Federal Congress implemented the Constitution
of the United States and established the framework for a Federal Republic
that has lasted 210 years, and CONGRESS allows users to test ideas and
speculate on the problems of establishing that democracy. LISTS, TABLES,
and CHARTS can be generated on-line and combined with the text and materials
of Historian... to form a Computer-Based Case Study.
The purpose of this paper is to provide
a pedagogical approach to a very important calculus topic, the derivative.
This approach involves the well know Case Study Method; it has been used
successfully in many fields.
This paper examines the ways in which
case study responses are assessed. A survey of assessment approaches is
used to identify which approaches are associated which various factors
such as subject area and level of course. No statistically significant
result was obtained, but anecdotal evidence was reported for differences
based on subject and level of course.
THE ROLE OF CASE STUDIES IN STUDYING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
This paper examines the contribution
of case studies in understanding how teachers and students use computer
technology. The value of computers in education is controversial, with
some researchers contending their worth can be proven only through quantitative
studies that compare learning through technology with traditional forms
of instruction. Although we accept the premise that comparative research
has a place in understanding computers, such a singular focus is too narrow.
Case studies offer unique perspectives about what can be achieved with
computer-based learning; equally important, they provide an opportunity
to examine the contextual nature of technology implementation.
The Cards Game, dynamic and amusing, is a didactic tool dedicated to the teaching of costs. It is directed to students with knowledge and interest on the topic, but also to any work group because, besides teaching, it facilitates interpersonal communication.
The game was conceived to improve
both the teaching process and the learning of costs. Its two premises are
the students' motivation and a good check of their knowledge of cost calculation
of a finished production in a system of costs by work orders.
Health care delivery is evolving toward
population-based care. With this evolution, managed care companies, purchasers,
accrediting agencies, and consumers are emphasizing "service" and are requiring
higher levels of provider performance. As a result, continuing education
(CE) providers must not only know the basics of accreditation and programming
but must also now focus on quality, collaboration, innovation and accountability.
To illustrate the emerging role of CE, the best outcome occur when teams
of health care professionals improve the process of care. This paper describes
the changes in the health care delivery system and how these changes will
define a changing role for continuing medical education. The presenter
will discussed how a quality management and a CME department within a hospital
collaborated to plan a program for physicians and other health care professionals
to appropriately reduce C-section rates.
Diego Hidalgo, Harvard University, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
Ricardo Hernández Mogollón, University of Extremadura, CÁCERES, SPAIN
Marcel Muriel, Catelsa-Hutchinsin-Total
Julián Cuéllar, Asociación Nacional
Ricardo Leal, Christian Leal Group
José Luis Gómez Vizcaíno, Sociedad de Capital Riesgo
Lola Serrano, Recursos Humanos del Grupo Joca
Grupo Cooperativo Jerte
Ricardo Hernández Mogollón, University of Extremadura, CÁCERES, SPAIN
Teresa Carriedo, Open University, CÁCERES, SPAIN
Hans Klein, WACRA®, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.