ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH PAPERS
"NOT ANOTHER MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION WORKSHOP"
(SIGH): ONLY THROUGH CREATIVE TEACHING CAN WE BE
Beate Baltes, Ed.D.
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.
Educators are usually sensitive towards the diversity in our culturally pluralistic nation. Why, then, do
they need to participate in another multicultural education workshop? Even research shows that many
multicultural education efforts are ineffective. In order to change the negative attitudes that educators have
towards multicultural education workshops, a trainer needs to be creative. He/She needs to build on the
participants' backgrounds and beliefs since merely introducing a variety of multicultural methods will not
bring the desired results.
THE PROCESSIONARY CATERPILLAR
CREATIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM
James V. Biundo
Southeast Missouri State University
Cape Girardeau, Missouri, U.S.A.
A French naturalist by the name of Jean Henri Fabre became quite intrigued by a species of caterpillar
called the "Processionary Caterpillar." These caterpillars feed on pine needles and move through the trees
in a long procession, one leading and the other following, each with its eyes half closed and its head snugly
fitted against the rear extremity of the caterpillar in front.
ROPE TRICKS, JUGGLING AND HACKY SACK
ENHANCE LEARNER INTEREST
Center for Career/Life Planning
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, U.S.A.
Coburn Place Safe Haven
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, U.S.A.
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, U.S.A.
At a recent informal meeting of adult learners, a professor of Physical Education captured attention by
describing how she increases the interest of students by teaching them rope tricks, juggling and hacky
sack. Those of us from other Adult Education disciplines responded with: What! As we heard more and
discussed this innovative approach to learning, we began seeing rope tricks, juggling and hacky sack as
a metaphor for interactive teaching and learning across disciplines. Consequently, this presentation will
introduce participants to innovative and interactive teaching strategies, by offering a three prong
presentation of 1. Rope Tricks, participating in experiential learning activities, 2. Juggling, keeping the
subject in the air, a presentation on the courage to teach; and 3. Hacky Sack, becoming grounded in the
theory and practice of creative teaching and learning strategies. The workshop also will include time for
participants to write their own application of Rope Tricks, Juggling and Hacky Sack.
CREATIVE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM CONTEXTUALIZATION
Patricia Ann Brock
Raritan Valley Community College
NEW YORK, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
Whether with trepidation or triumphant, we, as educators, venture into the next millennium guided by a paradigm shift of changing student needs. Traditional methodologies and traditional classroom settings are transforming, expanding beyond the four-walled cubes into the "virtual" amorphous cyberspace classrooms and reality sites outside of the typical ivy-covered towers of higher education. Because of technology-driven telecommunications and growing student diversity, we have a responsibility to be more innovative in our pedagogical approaches. Designing creative virtual classrooms developed within a theoretical framework of rationale is one answer.
I cannot think for others or without others, nor can others think for me. Even if the people's
thinking is superstitious or naive, it is only as they rethink their assumptions in action that they can
change. Producing and acting upon their own ideas -- not consuming those of others -- must
constitute that process. Paulo Friere, 1968
THE IMPACT OF THE
ACADEMIC CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE
ON THE RETENTION AND SUCCESS OF STUDENTS
ENROLLED AT THE COLLEGE OF NURSING:
A PILOT STUDY
Darlene Crawford and Jobe L. Payne
University of Illinois at Chicago
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
This study was conducted to assess the effect of the Academic Center for Excellence (ACE) program on 23 students who enrolled in the College of Nursing (CON) in the BSN program and who participated in the Individual Academic Counseling and Consultation Sessions (IACCS) of ACE in either of the years 1991, 1992 or 1993. The students enrolled in the Fall of 1991 and graduated in the Spring of 1993. The hypothesis tested was that the mean Final-GPA (FGPA) of the experimental students was different from the FGPA of the control group. The control group consisted of 24 students who where matched to the experimental group based on gender, ethnicity, age and year of enrollment.
Other indicators of successful intervention were explored. Some of these were related retention and
graduation rates. Successful intervention could be claimed by virtue of higher FGPA's and higher retention
and graduation rates.
BEGINNING WHERE THE STUDENTS ARE:
GIVING VALUE TO EXPERIENCE
COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA, U.S.A.
Unlike students in some academic disciplines, management students bring to the classroom a wide
variety of personal experiences that can potentially assist them in initially connecting to the subject of
management. As a result of their own previous work experiences, a majority of students in management
have first hand experiences relating to and interacting with managers in the work place. To what extent do
we as faculty give value to these experiences? This article addresses ways that faculty members can
encourage the expression of these experiences, thereby engaging our students as more active participants
in the learning process.
DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES TO
INTRODUCE STUDENTS TO RECOGNIZE THE
INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS,
INDIGENOUS CULTURES, AND HEALTH CARE
The purpose of this study was to develop laboratory sessions in ethnobotany. The research questions were, "What were the appropriate contents for an ethnobotany laboratory?" and "What was the appropriate format for an ethnobotany laboratory? A literature search was conducted concentrating on the topics of medicinal plants, indigenous cultures and health care. Data from the literature review indicated that hands-on, minds-on laboratory learning allowed for creativity and inquiry thinking.
The successful product included two, three hour lesson plans on medicinal plants and a chart designed
for student usage. It was recommended that students studying science have the opportunity to explore
the emerging area of ethnobotany.
THE AESTHETIC CORE OF CLASSROOM MNEMONICS
Harvard University, Philosophy of Education
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
and The Leonard Bernstein Center
NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, U.S.A.
By adapting for practical use various types of memory triggers and cues drawn from Renaissance humanist mnemotechnics, students can develop and cultivate points of connection to the text or material studied. By virtue of the mnemonically based exercises they are assigned (which, as a portfolio, constitutes a record of their cumulative progress in their journey toward Knowledge), students discover how best to identify a masterwork's themes, stylistic features, and ethical coordinates. They become "artfully responsible" for their learning, and can apply what they are learning to all other areas of their education--and, it is hoped, their lives as well.
CREATIVE TEACHING IN AUSTRIAN
PRACTICE ENTERPRISES BASED ON THE RESULTS OF
FORMATIVE EVALUATION RESEARCH
Vienna Economics and Business University
Department of Business Education
A recent reform of the curricula of Austrian Commercial Schools and Commercial Colleges included
the implementation of Practice Enterprises to be run by teachers and students. A research study initiated
by the Austrian Ministry of Education in 1996 and conducted by the author aimed at determining the
characteristics, the strengths and deficiencies of this learning environment. The results underline that a
Practice Enterprise is an appropriate learning environment providing students with opportunities to practice
manifold entrepreneurial tasks, but also a highly creative and challenging educational setting for teachers
to teach in.
EDUCATION VERSUS GRADE:
TEACHING THAT REDIRECTS THE FOCUS OF
TODAY'S COLLEGE STUDENT
Roslin Growe and Rand R. James
University of Southwestern Louisiana
LAFAYETTE, LOUISIANA, U.S.A.
This paper explores the need for collaborative learning, peer teaching, independent learning and skill development to persuade students to focus on getting an education rather than just a grade.
THE EFFECTS OF INCENTIVES ON THE READING TEST SCORES OF
STUDENTS IN 'LEARNING DISABLED READING CLASSES' IN THE
SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PHILADELPHIA
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, U.S.A.
This (dissertation) study examines the effects of incentives on the reading test scores and the reduction
of disruptive behavior of students in learning disabled reading classes in the school district of Philadelphia
over a period of five years. Despite the power of behavior modification in reducing problem behavior in the
classroom, many questions were addressed. The study describes the effects of 'token economy' on
reading test scores.
EXPLORING COMPLEX ISSUES THROUGH JIGSAW:
A 21ST CENTURY APPROACH FOR
EDUCATORS AT ALL LEVELS
Inez A. Heath, Ph. D.
Valdosta State University
VALDOSTA, GEORGIA, U.S.A.
This paper addresses methods for developing critical thinking skills, especially among linguistically and culturally diverse students, through the implementation of Jigsaw II. The value of this complex cooperative strategy lies in its focus on interactive teaching and learning placing a dual emphasizes on individual and group accountability. The multi-faceted approach to problem solving, provides an opportunity for in-depth understanding of the subject content, while also furthering cognitive academic linguistic proficiency. Students involved, must learn to use language creatively to negotiate for meaning, and compromise their ideas. This process also provides the opportunity for enhancing students' social skills and cultural understanding. I will be discussing various projects designed to encourage understanding of problems specific to the social sciences. The projects which were developed by graduate students and in-service teachers in the K-8 grades consider student developmental levels, and focus on enhancing both language and content. This presentation also includes a simulation of a complex Jigsaw II that is appropriate for students at the post-secondary level. Involvement of participants will be requested for this activity.
THE SEARCH FOR QUALITY STANDARDS IN
MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, U.S.A.
Educators at one time could be fairly certain they understood what a quality program was, and how
it was delivered. The literature concerning educational quality was clearly grounded in both the quality of
the faculty and of the materials. However, with the advent of distance education quality became more
complex. An overview of a variety of quality models and guidelines will be presented, including a review of
the current literature and a discussion of the Walden University model of quality and integrity for distance
delivery of graduate education.
ACCENTUATING THE POSITIVE:
EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES
FOR TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL LEARNERS
WASHINGTON, D.C., U.S.A.
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, U.S.A.
This paper examines differences in pedagogic and evaluation preferences of traditionally-aged and adult learners based on analyzing syllabi in courses with substantial representation of both age groups. In each group, learners were asked to identify the pedagogies and evaluation modes they most preferred in their learning, regardless of course content or instructor. The data indicate that there are strong differences based on the age and prior experience of learners. This has implication for faculty in designing and teaching courses, especially those with a substantial age enrollment mix.
TEACHING & LEARNING PRODUCTIVITY
USING INTERACTIVE APPROACHES IN THE CLASSROOM
Hans E. Klein
NEEDHAM (BOSTON), MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
West Virginia University
MORGANTOWN, WEST VIRGINIA, U.S.A.
Cases, Simulation, Games and other interactive teaching methods are receiving revitalized interest and recognition as an effective teaching methodology. We can enhance student learning by stimulating the mind through interaction and team-work processes. The main need is for professors to implement interactive methodologies in classrooms that are composed of students with diverse backgrounds, learning preferences and experiences.
In this workshop we will apply techniques for generating interaction between students and faculty, among students, and between student and subject matter. The workshop focuses on a process that is applicable across all disciplines
Objectives of the workshop are: 1. to create a strong awareness of the impact of diverse cultures and
backgrounds in the learning environment. 2. to demonstrate the effectiveness of working in groups to
process information for enhancement of learning and problem solving. 3.to provide techniques for using
simulation, exercises, case studies and role playing to communicate concepts.
THE HOTHOUSE EFFECT:
CREATING OUTSTANDING LEARNING COMMUNITIES
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
This workshop combines a lecture format with discussion and break-out group activities. The Hothouse Effect is the name I give to the conditions that produce highly creative group activity over a significant period of time. By considering such creative communities as ancient Athens, quattrocento Florence, the circle of artists active in Paris at the beginning of the 20th century, the Bauhaus, Harlem during the 1920's and 1930's renaissance, and several modern business organizations, we can describe the factors that led to their exceptional creativity as well as methods the communities used to enhance the creative output of their members. Once such factors and methods are identified, we can apply them to contemporary environments both organizational and educational in order to enhance their creativity.
Objectives: Participants in this workshop will:
Learn methods for teaching creatively and generating innovative activity in professional settings.
Model creative approaches to promoting creativity in groups.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN UNIVERSITIES:
REALITY OR ILLUSION?
R. Keith Martin
FAIRFIELD, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A.
College and university administrators, like their counterparts in other industries, need information on
which to base decisions. They need it at the right time, in a form that is useful, and at a cost that is
reasonable. With pressures from trustees and overseers, legislative bodies, funding and government
agencies, and the public at large, and with increasingly limited resources, it is increasingly important that
their institutions develop and implement effective information systems. This paper reports a study of the
manner in which three universities undertook the development of such systems, and presents guidelines
for enhancing the chances of their success.
USING THE SELF-AUTHORED CASE STUDY TO IMPROVE
COMMUNICATION IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGS
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A.
The use of self-authored case studies as a vehicle for interpersonal skills education in workshops,
training sessions and college level instruction is considered. Theories regarding the socialization of
interpersonal behavior are presented and a review of the traditional and contemporary approaches to
human relations training is described.
CASE CLOSED: PRE-MBA STUDENT PREPARED CASE-ROLES
University of Delaware
BEAR, DELAWARE, U.S.A.
Clients and students from around the world enroll in business programs throughout the United States. This presentation focuses on the communication skills of business students from a variety of countries who may have sufficient scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) to register in graduate level courses, but may not have adequate communication skills to actively participate in class. The result of poor communication skills is often frustration on the part of the student and the instructors or trainers and eventually the supervisors who count on communicative skills, not just knowledge of grammar.
Effective techniques used in international business classes will be examined and discussed.
TEACHING AND LEARNING "OUTSIDE THE BOX"
Carla Millar and Denise Stanley
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM
Carla Millar is Director of the Flexible Masters Programme at the City University Business School. She
developed the programme's framework within the University to fuse creatively and flexibly the needs and
interests of managers, their companies and industries and the requirements of quality post-gradudate
education in Business Management. From wide ranging experience, this paper will offer case insights into
work with a telecommunications company and an industry group, highlighting the creativity and flexibility
applied in all stages of the analysis-planning-implementation-control cycle.
AUGMENTING THE LEARNING CONTRACT:
EDUCATIONAL AND RESEARCH VALUE OF MINI CASES
Vijaya Narapareddy & Nancy Sampson
University of Denver
DENVER, COLORADO, U.S.A.
This paper discusses the non-traditional approach taken by the authors in the use of mini cases. Mini
cases serve to build a superior learning environment for both graduate and undergraduate instruction. The
non-conventional approach using such cases fosters an iterative learning process supported by broad in
depth research. It also builds integrative analytical and decision making skills while challenging students
to heightened cross-cultural awareness.
NATIONAL IDENTITIES: A MULTI-CULTURAL,
INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDENT ASSIGNMENT
Barra O Cinneide
University of Limerick
The project's originality lies in the expertise that can be brought to bear in terms of a
business/management approach, in addition to traditional historical, political and sociological perspectives.
From recent personal research on new contributors to Ireland's image, the hypothesis is that national
distinctiveness/images are increasingly essential to all states, politically, culturally and economically,
particularly for recently emerged countries, the ex-USSR, Yugoslav, etc. The project allows for extensive
literature reviews through library/database searches, and surveys by students, etc. A feature of the
approach is the promotion of the case method as a basis for research and discussion.
THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN A GLOBAL CURRICULUM:
UNITING THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE/CULTURE WITH
Anthony T. Sallustio
NEW YORK, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
This presentation examines learning strategies that work closely with technology in the Language World
Trade major offered at Pace University. Model strategies show the use of video, CD-ROM and software
material as tools for learning both language/culture and international business. The co-presenter will
describe strategies used in the international academic setting of the university as well as that of the World
Trade Institute which places students in a very different learning environment. The World Trade Institute is
a unit of pace University and plays a key role in the interdisciplinary LWT program. Illustrations will use
examples from French.
THE CREATIVE USE OF CASE STUDIES
IN BUSINESS AND EDUCATION:
TORBERT'S FOUR TERRITORIES AND
'THE POWER OF BALANCE'
California State University at San Bernadino
SAN BERNADINO, CALIFORNIA, U.S.A.
This paper will describe a creative, unique methodology to teach critical thinking based on an action
inquiry methodology applicable to educational and business settings. This method utilizes the methodology
of creating case studies using William Torbert's four Territories of thoughts/intellect, intuitive/spiritual vision,
actions and outcomes/consequences. This method has been used in undergraduate and graduate
education, as well as business settings in Switzerland and in the United States. We will present a range of
scenarios, possible applications and discuss the challenges of teaching in multi cultural environments.
Integration o adult learning concepts, intellectual standards, and evaluation methods will also be presented.
USING SOCRATIC DIALOGUE
TO MOTIVATE A LARGE CLASS
University of Delaware
NEWARK, DELAWARE, U.S.A.
The "Socratic Dialogue" technique is a very effective way to interact with students that are not particularly interested in the subject matter. The instructor's objective is through dialogue to lead the students to their own discoveries. In the process the learners realize that abstract concepts do not seem so abstract any more, they feel a sense of accomplishment and gain a deeper understanding that stays with them. Guiding the students, through dialogue, to think for themselves is an art and skill that can be mastered. In this method the active participants are stimulated and inspired and so are the observers. The technique is also known as "midwifery" because the learners are helped and guided towards the birth of ideas and solutions by their instructor.
EMBODYING DISCOURSE: THEORY INTO PRACTICE
IN A SERVICE LEARNING COURSE
Mary M. Schmelzer
Saint Joseph's University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
This papers considers the possibility of making the insights of contemporary criticism as practical as
they are theoretically compelling. It describes a service-learning course intended for students preparing
for medical careers in which they read texts that focus on suffering, illness, death, and healing. At the same
time they work in hospital, hospice, and long term health care settings where they meet and listen to the
chronically or critically ill and disabled. The works are chosen for their theoretical as well as thematic
potential as students are encouraged to apply what they have come to understand in the classroom to the
situations they encounter on site.
URBAN TEACHERS' VIEWS OF THEMSELVES
AS TEACHERS' OF WRITING
Peachtree Urban Writing Project
Georgia State University
ATLANTA, GEORGIA, U.S.A.
Traditionally, the teaching of writing has had little emphasis in pre-service teacher education programs. Teachers interested in improving writing instruction have looked to staff development experiences and graduate programs for focuses attention on how to improve their teaching practices. To meet his need, National Writing Institutes have been formed to provide teachers with an intense immersion in writing and study of the effective approaches for developing students' literacy abilities.
The Peachtree Urban Writing Project (PUWP), a site of the National Writing Project, focuses on the teaching of writing in urban classrooms. The purpose of this study was to examine the views of teachers involved in the Peachtree Urban Writing Project to better understand how holding different views toward writing or the teaching of writing might relate to the successes and tensions teachers experienced during the project.
TEACHING IN TANDEM: CREATIVE COLLABORATIONS
OR A STORY OF TRANSFORMATIONS
Joan T. Wynne
Georgia State University
ATLANTA, GEORGIA U.S.A.
Susan C. McClendon
Atlanta Public School System
ATLANTA, GEORGIA U.S.A.
When the great Rabbi Israel Baal Shem-Tov saw misfortune threatening the Jews, it was his custom to go into a certain part of the forest to meditate. There he would light a fire, say a special prayer, and the miracle would be accomplished and the misfortune averted. Later, when his disciple, the celebrated Magid of Mezritch, had occasion, for the same reason, to intercede with heaven, he would go to the same place in the forest and say: "Master of the Universe, listen! I do not know how to light the fire, but I am still able to say the prayer," and again the miracle would be accomplished. Still later, Rabbi Moshe-Leib of Sasov, in order to save his people once more, would go into the forest and say: "I do not know how to light the fire, I do not know the prayer, but I know the place and this must be sufficient." It was sufficient and the miracle was accomplished. Then it fell to Rabbi Israel of Rizhyn to overcome misfortune. Sitting in his armchair, his head in his hands, he spoke to God: "I am unable to light the fire and I do not know the prayer; I cannot even find the place in the forest. All I can do is to tell the story, and this must be sufficient" And it was sufficient.
God made man because he loves stories. ---Elie Wiesel, The Gates of the Forest